October 20, 2020 The DSM- 5 diagnostic criteria for ASD.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), defines ASD as a category that includes two symptom domains: 1) social communication impairments, and 2) restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviours and interests. The DSM- 5 diagnostic criteria for ASD is ad follows – Domain-
- Social interaction and communication impairments • Deficits in initiating and responding to social interactions. • Reduced sharing of interests, achievements, or emotions. • Reduced eye contact during communication. May use someone’s hand to get a desired object without making eye contact. • Reduced use of gestures (e.g., pointing, waving) • Reduced or very minimal facial expressions. • Reduced interest in friends. • Difficulty engaging in imaginative play with friends.
- Abnormal and restricted, repetitive behaviours, interests, and activities- • Repeats words, phrases (e.g., from movies) • Repetitive body, arm, hand, or finger movements (e.g. spinning around) • Transient stiff posturing of hands or whole body Wearing the same clothes every day; eating the same food daily • Unusual reactions (e.g., distress with smells, sounds, textures, sights, and tastes) to sensory stimulus.
- Clinical symptoms may not be fully evident until later stages, as they may be masked by learned strategies.
- Symptoms interfere with everyday functioning.
- Symptoms are not better explained by intellectual disability or developmental delay.
- ASD may occur with or without medical, genetic, neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioural disorders, or an intellectual or language impairment.
- Level of severity for each of the two domains may be used to refine diagnosis: Level 1: Requiring support; Level 2: Requiring substantial support; Level 3: Requiring very substantial support.